The Pomeranian looks like a children’s toy (and, unfortunately, sometimes it is indeed). This soft plush ball will become a faithful friend. Its naughty barking will brighten up the saddest and most uninteresting day.
The Pomeranian is famous for its restlessness and, at the same time, a charming little muzzle. This dog will not feel good if it does not walk long and vigorously outside. This is a very quick-witted dog with a character that would be more suitable for representatives of large dog breeds. This fluffy doggy will, without doubt and fear, protect its owner if it suspects that there is an enemy nearby. However, the Pom is not a tame dog, so it will not sit on his owner’s lap for a long time. The dog is better to lie in the foliage and throw out energy through playing with the other pet or owner.
Aggressiveness: mild (3/5)
Education: mild (3/5)
Need for care: mild (3/5)
Health: below the average (2/5)
Attitude to solitude: below the average (2/5)
Noisiness: above the average (4/5)
Activity: mild (3/5)
Molting: below the average (2/5)
Friendliness: above the average (4/5)
Owning cost: low (2/5)
Intellect: mild (3/5)
Security skill: mild (3/5)
* The characteristics of the Pomeranian breed are based on an assessment by lapkins.ru experts and feedback from dog owners.
It is difficult to imagine that the ancestors of this cute ball of fur were several times larger and lived in the territory of modern northern European countries. This is proved through the burials of the Neolithic era found by archaeologists. The so-called peat dogs were used for locomotion due to their endurance and strength. Incredibly, this method is still used by the people of Ireland and Lapland. In southern countries, these dogs were used to guard ships in ports or property. But everything changed with the onset of the Middle Ages. It was at that time that Poms’ ancestors finally gained their respect from aristocrats who liked the pretty appearance and inexhaustible energy of these dogs. Increasingly, noble ladies and distinguished persons appeared at social events in the company of a four-legged companion.
The Germans were the first to show real interest in the breeds of dogs from which the Pomeranians descended. It was here that the Spitzhound dogs began to be bred, which by the 18th century spread throughout the medieval state. For many decades, cynologists could not come to a consensus about where the Pomeranian came from. Some of them believed that this place was the German city of Württemberg (center of dog breeding), others believed that it was Pomerania (Prussian provincial town). Many experts have made bold claims when comparing Spitz to dogs that lived in China, Ancient Egypt, and Greece. As a result, the right to be considered the homeland of this breed was assigned to Pomerania.
Queen Victoria has influenced the recognition of the breed. Like many before that, she could not resist the charm of Marco. It was the Pomeranian who met the queen in Florence and soon went with her to England. Over time, this made the breed popular. Royal Spitz won dog shows many times, and therefore some townspeople wanted to buy such dogs. At the end of the 19th century, the Pomeranian was recognized as a breed awarded with a separate dog breeders club. That club consisted mainly of noble ladies, many of whom later founded the first kennels, where they bred and kept Pomeranian dogs, often of a certain color. For example, one of the kennels was famous thanks to pets with beige and white fur, while in another one could find dogs of black colors.
Due to the activities of British dog breeders, Poms began to vary in size. These dogs have become significantly smaller in comparison with their German brethren. All dogs were divided into two groups: individuals weighing less than seven pounds or more than seven pounds (about 3.1 kilograms). As a result of many years of selection, English Pomeranians have become the standard that breeders from all over the world have tried to match. However, to this day, the natives of Pomerania remain the smallest of the Spitz.
In 1892, this breed conquered the USA, where the dogs were brought from English kennels. Pomeranians were not recognized by the American Kennel Club (AKC) – a well-known canine organization that still exists today. Despite this, Americans love the representatives of this breed for their excellent health, playful behavior, and silky fur. Everything changed at the beginning of the 20th century when the decree of the American Pomeranian Club refused to recognize the breed.
The first exhibition was held only eleven years later. Then numerous breeders of Pomeranians competed for the right to become the best. By that time, the Spitz had a whole palette of fur colors. The dogs in black, white, chocolate, beige, and blue colors got hold of everyone’s admiration, but only one dog received the highest award. It was the Banner Prince Charming with pure black fur, owned by Mrs. F. Smith. Famous champions of subsequent exhibitions were the Pomeranian Dainty Mite (Graceful Baby), Princess Ula, and Twilight. They all gave birth to numerous breeds.
Despite visible progress in breeding the Pomeranian, American dog breeders continued to work on improving the breed, but soon abandoned attempts to make the animals more miniature. Strong reduction of dogs’ body proportions resulted in the inability to continue the genus, which negatively affected the breeding of dogs. It has been experimented that blue coloration of Pomeranians is the most difficult to maintain, and white Spitz looked larger than their brethren with a different color of fur. It was a reason why they participated less frequently in exhibitions.
It is worth noting that it is in America that the proper name of the breed has been established (the Pomeranian). Others mistakenly called the Spitz both German and Toy. Today this trend is less frequent, although in the classification of FCI (Fédération Cynologique Internationale) Pomeranians are still registered under the name German Spitz.
This breed has gone a long but interesting way from the service northern dogs to the pets of the nobles. Pomeranians are now permanent participants of various exhibitions and shows. These animals admire people by their intellect, nervousness, and thick fur inherited from their ancestors. Pomeranians’ compact size, combined with a big heart, makes them great companions and loyal friends.
The Pomeranian belongs to Toy breeds of dogs. However, its dense build and strong muscles do not detract from grace and elegance. The FCI standard requires that the height of this dog should be equal to its body length (about 18-22 cm).
The weight of Pomeraniansis proportional to their height and ranges from 1.5 to 3.2 kg. Representatives of the breed that take part in dog shows should weigh about 2 kg.
The Pomeranian head is small in size. The wide posterior part of the skull narrows to the nose, thus forming a wedge. The Pomeranian head is small in size. The wide posterior part of the skull narrows to the nose, thus forming a wedge. The rounded forehead contrasts with an insufficiently pronounced occipital bulge. Cheekbones are almost invisible because of chubby cheeks.
Pomeranians have a narrow muzzle that is half the size of a skull. The small and neat nose is always black (it may be brown in dogs of red colors). The situation is similar with lip color.
The triangles of the ears “stand” close to the vertex. They have sharp and hard tips. At birth, Pomeranian’s ears are drooping, but “rise” as the dog matures.
Small dark eyes are set obliquely. The shape is mostly almond-shaped or oval. The eyelids are black; dark brown pigmentation is acceptable in dogs of similar color. A lively and even mischievous look is inherent in the Pomeranian gives the dog a resemblance to a fox.
The upper jaw of the Pomeranian overlaps the lower, thereby forming a regular scissor bite. Straight and pincer bites are not recognized as a defect. The Pomeranian has 42 teeth. Lack of premolars is uncritical.
The strong neck has a slightly arched shape. It has average length and hasn’t so-called dewlap. The neck is masked by a lush “frill”.
The neck of the Pomeranian ends with a withers, and withers end with a short back. The loin turns into a short, uncut croup. The chest is developed. The belly should be fit and the ribs should be palpable.
Pomeranians’ tails have an average length and they are located relatively high. Due to the tail ring lying on the dog’s back, the dog looks like adoll.
Forelimbs are set wide apartю The shoulders have strong musculature. Tightly attached toes look like neat paws of the cat. The black color of paw pads and claws is typical for all representatives of the breed except dogs in red, beige, and brown colors.
Hind limbs are parallel to each other. The hips and shins are in equal proportion. The toes are compressed and end with black claws and pads (brown in some representatives of the breed).
Pomeranians move easily and pliable. The hind limbs have good propulsion. The dog is a little springy when walking.
The fur of the Pomeranian hides a thick underfur. The short and soft fur covers the head, the protruding ears, and the front side of the limbs. For the rest of body, long and straight fur is typical. It is not characterized by the presence of curls and waves. The shoulders of the dog are covered with a mane. The furry tail merges smoothly with the “pants” on the hind limbs.
The breed of the Pomeranian has ten colors of fur. There are white, blue, black, beige, sable, orange, blue, brown, and black with fawn shades. Spotted color implies a white background color and a steady spread of markings.
Any deviation from the standard is considered a breed defect. Among them:
Besides, disqualifying defects are also distinguished:
Male Pomeranians must have two developed testicles which fully present in the scrotum.
The owners of charming Pomeranians note their amiable character, their unbridled curiosity, and the cheerful enthusiasm with which these fluffy babies explore the world even when living in a flat. The owner better not bring up the Pomeranian as a decorative dog with whom he can lie on the sofa and watch the favorite movie. The Pomeranian prefers active games, and a walk in the fresh air is a pleasure for it. Representatives of this breed will gladly bring a thrown ball, chase after a pigeon slumbering on the kerb, or swoop to protect the owner from the “threat”. In general, a walk with this fluffy, restless animal will be fun.
The Pomeranian gets along well with the owner, adapting to his lifestyle. The faithful dog will never make any noise early in the morning, if the owner prefers to wake up around noon, and will follow on the owner as soon as he wakes up. Representatives of this breed are attached to the family in which they live and can be sad if they are not given proper attention. Many of the owners of Poms note that returning home from work is fraught with an uncommon demonstration of attachment and love from a little teddy bear. This dog will always be with you during the preparation of dinner, taking a shower, and a night’s sleep. Some Pomeranians can sleep in a room with their owners (often even in a human’s bed together) to enjoy another morning caress and a loud call to walk in the city park.
The Pomeranian is characterized by its inclination to bark. It responds with the melodic «voice» to any suspicious rustle. This dog is a great caretaker who scares off an uninvited guest, forgetting his miniature size. Sometimes the Pom can bark for no reason, and then the owner will have to gently correct this bad habit of his pet.
If you plan to take a Pomeranian as a friend to a child, you should raise a new member of the family like care and responsibility dog. The Pomeranian will gladly accompany the children in a fun game if it used to their company when was a puppy. Otherwise, the dog would prefer to remain a bystander.
The Pomeranian behaves restraint with strangers and only in the absence of proper education, it can bark at a random passer-by. The dog reacts cautiously to general affection and not everyone human will allow to run his fingers into a soft plush fur of dog.
The Pom gets along well with other animals, but sometimes it shows a habit of dominating gets along well with other animals, but sometimes it shows a habit of dominating others. The appearance of a second dog in the house is like an alarm bell for a Pomeranian. Dog has to show the master and the new fluffy bounder that it is he, The Pom, in charge of the house. However, if the Spitz grew up with other animals, these problems will not arise. Be careful to introduce the pet to decorative parrots, rats, hamsters, and others: the hunting instincts of a Pomeranian can manifest at the most unexpected moment.
The Pomeranian is naturally gifted with a highly developed intellect, which greatly facilitates the education process (compared to other decorative breeds of dogs). However, being stubborn and independent may become a serious obstacle to the execution of commands. The owner must forget the traditional training methods: in this case, they will not work. Then you will have to find a special approach to your pet.
The main thing in raising a Pomeranian is to forget about its touching appearance. Often the owners of these dogs treat them as if they were children, considering their pets small and unable to carry out difficult commands. Each Pomeranian needs a confident master who can show firmness of his nature and who has leadership qualities. Only then the dog is willingly trained, learning both basic commands, and performance tricks. If the Spitz thinks it is bigger than its owner, it defiantly refuses to listen to any exhortation or request to sit down or lie down.
Delicate pet handling and reward in the form of any delicious is the most effective approach to training representatives of this breed. The Pomeranian does not like criticism and responds to the manifestation of cruelty or disrespect with willfulness, insolence, or even aggression. A naughty dog will bring a lot of trouble to the owner, so first, you need to teach your pet to perform the simplest commands like sit or lie. The command to stop barking is no less useful: not everyone will like the high and sonorous intonations of the “voice” of Poms.
In general, dog breeders characterize the Pomeranian as a quick-witted creature that is easy to train with the right approach to education. The only problem that can arise is toilet training. Due to its structural features, this breed is difficult to stand overflowing bladder long enough, so the dog can pee in the apartment. However, if you have the patience to teach your pet to ask for a walk on time, the cleanliness of your home will remain intact. Especially creative dog breeders teach the Spitz to go to the litter box.
Long and fluffy fur is a major virtue of Pomeranians, so the bulk of the care is meticulous brushing. This breed molts twice a year. At the same time, the first molting takes place on the fourth-sixth month when «adult» fur grows up. Females start molting during estrus and after pregnancy, so the owner must not be afraid. However, constant bald spots should make you think about changing your pet’s diet and choosing new cosmetics for hair care.
It is not recommended to bathe Pomeranians more than once or twice a month (if necessary). To do this, use dilute shampoo for longitudinal breeds: a concentrated remedy can have the opposite effect. It is absolutely necessary to thoroughly dry and velvety fur of the dog with a hairdryer. The owner should use a comb with long bars. You should note that in process of brushing, the fur must be moist, so it is always necessary to use water that was softened by a hair conditioner. The molting period requires a more thorough brushing.
The teeth of the Pomeranian must be leaned with a special paste 3-4 times a week. To do this, you can use a toothbrush. A piece of bandage wrapped around your finger is good too. It is recommended to include solid food in the pet’s diet in order to avoid the appearance of a tooth stone and further treatment.
It is recommended to include solid food in the pet’s diet in order to avoid the appearance of a tooth stone and further treatment. Do not forget to treat the sharp edges of trimmed claws with a nail file. Paw pads also deserve care: rub vegetable oil into them – and painful crannies will never disturb your pet!
The Pomeranian’s nutrition should be balanced. For this, dry food with a maximum content of essential minerals and vitamins is suitable. Natural food is no less useful, but the owner should never feed the pet with such food from the table as:
The food must always be fresh and warm. Always monitor the condition of the water in the dog bowl: it needs to be changed daily.
The Northern origin rewarded the Pomeranian with good health in comparison with other Toy breeds. Even in old age, these lively bears feel great. Thick fur explains the predisposition of Pomeranians to frequent formation of knots. Some dogs suffer from alopecia or baldness of parts of the body. Particularly frightening is the so-called black skin disease, which is fraught with complete fur loss and skin pigmentation.
Pomeranians of merle color are most susceptible to diseases. They are often born deaf, with increased intraocular pressure and coloboma (defect of the eyes). There are violations in the functioning of the cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, and nervous systems.
Typical diseases of Pomeranians include:
Rare diseases include tumors and undescended testicles in males.
Before you take a new pet into the house, you have to think about a reason why you buy it. Show class puppies are best suited for exhibitions. Breed class dogs are bought mainly for breeding. If you see in the Pomeranian a beautiful friend and companion, pay attention to pet-class puppies. So you will not fail.
The future owner of a dog must understand that there is no guarantee that his pet will be won first place at exhibitions, as well as not all breed class females are fertile. If this is important to you, it is best to get your Pomeranian from experienced breeders who pay due attention to the correct breeding of dogs. Although one should not forget that even a pet-class puppy can be raised to a champion if he fully complies with the breed standard.
The future owner must pay attention to the puppy’s health and appearance when he selects a Pomeranian. A healthy puppy has to be playful, jaunty, quick, and be curious, and not afraid of hands. The size of a puppy should not determine your choice: even the smallest “baby” could become a large dog.
The sex of the puppy mostly determines his behavior in the future. Males are characterized by bullying and stubbornness, while females are characterized by tenderness and softness, although there are exceptions.
The price of a puppy depends on several factors. Offspring from elite Pomeranians costs from 600 to 1300 dollars. A fluffy little puppy without documents costs up to 300 dollars. You should remember that females are priced several times more expensive than males.
It is recommended to purchase Pomeranians in special kennels that have been breeding they for many years. So you will get a faithful friend with excellent health and inexhaustible optimism.