Introduction to ITIL

Introduction to ITIL

The end of the 20th century marked the transition from an industrial society to an information society. Already in the mid-80s of the last century, the IT industry began to develop rapidly: personal computers, the Internet, local networks, client-server technology, etc. appeared. Information, means of its processing and management have become the main strategic resources of any organization, and the achievement of business goals has become directly dependent on the IT area. In the beginning, the informatization process was quite spontaneous: new technologies, services and applications quickly appeared. In other words, the IT area was focused primarily on the “novelty” and “quantity” of IT services, that is, development. After the initial saturation of the market, its participants realized the need to ensure the quality of IT services. Currently, ensuring the quality of IT services is the key to the effective analysis, processing and dissemination of information, that is, to the success of the organization as a whole.

The story of ITIL

In the 1980s, the British government commissioned the Central Computer and Communications Agency (CCTA) to develop general principles for the efficient use of IT services in the UK. Thus, the first document was born that combines the best practices in IT service management. Its main feature was the development of a unified approach that does not depend on the service provider. In the late 1980s and early 1990s, a series of books appeared on how to manage IT services and how IT interacts with users of these services. This library of books has been called the Information Technology Infrastructure Library or ITIL (the IT Infrastructure Library). Subsequently, the CCTA was merged with the State Chamber of Commerce or OGC, which currently owns the ITIL library:

ITIL is essentially a set of publications containing recommendations for delivering quality services and the processes and components needed to support them. The main goal of ITIL is the promotion of modern knowledge and the exchange of experience in the field. The main feature of ITIL is the organization of Service Management as a set of processes.

IT Information Management Forum

In 1991, after the IT community became interested in ITIL, a forum was created – the IT Information Management Forum (ITIMF). Its goal was to bring together IT specialists, exchange ideas and experience. Later the name changed to IT Service Management Forum (ITSMF). Now this forum unites many IT specialists, and the number of forum users around the world is growing daily.

The next series of books – ITIL v2 – appeared from the mid-1990s to 2004. If the first version contained more than 60 books, then the second – only 9, and the third – 5. The main goal of the second version was to describe the process of efficient transfer of services to the consumer and reduce the gap between the IT field and business.

In 2004, the second update of ITIL was launched due to the fact that many new technologies and fundamental changes in the IT field have appeared. The result was ITILv3, which will be discussed in this course.

Service Management

Today, ITIL is the most well-known knowledge base in the field of Service Management around the world and reflects the fundamental foundations of the world’s leading practices in the IT field. In Europe, there are two certification centers for ITIL – EXIN (Dutch Examination Institute) and ISEB (The Information Systems Examination Board – a division of the British Computer Society). A number of consulting companies are involved in the implementation of ITIL processes and training. In Russia, “forerunners” are Hewlett-Packard Consulting, I-Teco, IT-Expert.

ITIL considers Service Management in the context of a service provider-customer relationship.

A customer is a buyer of goods or services. A customer for an IT service provider is a person (group of people) who enters into agreements with the supplier.

Veterinarian: the story of profession

A veterinarian is a specialist in animal diseases. According to statistics, most vet jobs are in the field of animal husbandry. Another, extensive area of ​​work is the treatment of domestic animals (mainly dogs and cats). In addition, some veterinarians specialize in wild animals, working in reserves.

Among other things, the veterinarian, together with the paramedic, is engaged in:

In private veterinary clinics, the duties of a veterinarian are about the same, but most often he deals with the following duties:

The profession of a veterinarian is very different from the work of a doctor. An animal, unlike a person, cannot tell what hurts him. Each of them needs its own approach, affection and special intuition. The veterinarian should be well versed in the habits of the animal, be able to distinguish the sick from the healthy, not only by external signs, but also by behavior.

In addition, the veterinary profession carries obvious risks: animal aggression, the likelihood of catching diseases or parasites.

In the ancient history

Veterinary medicine is an ancient industry. Attempts to treat animals have been made by man almost from the very moment he began to tame them. The goal was utilitarian: so that the diseased animal would continue to be useful and not infect the rest of the herd. The profession of an animal healer was in Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, where there was a whole institute of hippiators (doctors who treated horses).

For centuries, knowledge about animal diseases has been superficial. In the Middle Ages, not every person could count on qualified medical care, and it was even worse for animals. And for a very long time, the same doctors (healers) that treated people were engaged in healing animals.

The first specialized veterinary school opened in modern times in France. The exact date of its appearance is also known – 1761. The educational institution was opened by Louis XV, who was concerned about the massive loss of livestock. Since this period, the treatment of animals has moved into a scientific direction.

Closer to the 20th century, veterinary medicine in most developed countries began to take on the shape and functions that we know now. Veterinarians, paramedics, laboratory services have appeared who control the epizootic situation in the country.

How to take your dog on a road trip in Europe

In the summer of 2016 my wife and I went to Italy by car and took our dog Businka with us.

Both us and the dog liked to have such a rest. This year we are going on holiday with the dog again. I will tell you what information you need to collect and how to take your dog abroad.

Why do we need any documents

Dogs have a much harder time traveling than humans. Governments are worried about the spread of disease throughout their country and are making sure that sick animals are not brought in.

travel with dog

Veterinary passport

A veterinary passport and a microchip are required for the dog to be allowed at the border.

It’s like a human passport, only for a dog. Without a passport, they will not be vaccinated, and the customs officers will not be released at the border. The breed, nickname, date of birth of the dog and information about the owner are recorded in the passport.

The passport also works like a card in a hospital. It is marked with all vaccinations and treatments. The passport identifies your dog and says it is safe.


At the border, customs officers must make sure that the dog is exactly the one for which you issue it according to the documents.

Previously, a brand was used for this: a puppy was tattooed with an individual number in the ear or groin. This number was entered in the passport. Now, instead of a tattoo, a microchip is implanted under the skin – once and for life. It is more humane and more convenient. A microchip is absolutely necessary in Europe, without it they will not be allowed.

Information about all chipped animals is stored in the two largest European databases – Pet-max and Euro-pet-net. Companies from every country work with them. In Russia, information is transferred to both databases by the “Animal-face” organization.

When to do it. The chip must be done before the rabies vaccination: if you do the opposite, then the vaccine will have to be redone. Deposit at least 30 days before the trip in order to have time to make both the chip and the documents.

Where to do it. At the veterinary clinic, which transfers the data to the national database of chipped animals.

Rabies vaccine

To be admitted to Europe, you need to treat the dog for worms and vaccinate against rabies. Depending on which country you live in and which countries you will be traveling through, an additional rabies antibody test may be required.

A valid rabies vaccination is required for entry. When the doctor is vaccinated, he notes the date of the last vaccination and the name of the medicine in the passport. The European Union has a list of approved drugs. Better to use one of them.

Where to do it. In any public or private veterinary clinic, which confirms the vaccination with its stamp in the dog’s passport.

When to do it. There are several conditions:

A good idea is to buy some appropriate, dog-friendly clothes for travel (see this online shop for instance:

UK market

While the UK’s two biggest exports are entertainment and finance, 2005 was a great year. His best-selling album was “X & Y” by Coldplay, a British rock band. “Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince” sold more copies in its first 24 hours than any previous novel. “Peppa Pig,” a children’s television show that would become so popular that American parents would complain about giving their children a British accent, has made its transatlantic debut.

London Stock Exchange (LSE) Definition

UK Stock Market regulations

This section has been prepared as a summary of the FSA regulations for securitized derivatives. Additionally, you can view details of London Stock Exchange regulatory requirements through downloads. The table below should be used only as a general guide highlighting some of the key points related to the warranties covered.

If you are unsure of how the regulations apply to you, contact your regular FSA supervisory contact.

If you do not have permission to advise or trade in derivatives, you will need to apply to the FSA for a waiver of your permits before entering the covered warrants market.

Risk warning, relevant for all brokers

A risk warning should be given to clients, prior to any transaction or advice, providing an explanation of all key risks. Note: A warranty risk warning from the company is not sufficient.

A one-way risk warning may be acceptable, but only if the business can demonstrate that the customer received the risk warning prior to an initial purchase and had a proper opportunity to review its terms. Electronic signatures may be appropriate.

The risk warning between broker and client may cover the initial execution and all subsequent transactions in instruments with a similar risk profile. This also affects automation and advisory tools like

Customer suitability

A broker can negotiate the services and availability of securitized derivatives to any client.

Suitability checks are not required, unless the marketing takes the form of a direct financial promotion offer (i.e. which allows the client to enter into an investment contract).

A broker can market the services and availability of securitized derivatives to any client.

Adequacy checks are mandatory.


If a company is not authorized to trade in derivatives, it will need to apply for a waiver of its existing license.

If a company does not have the authorization to give advice on derivatives, it will have to seek a waiver of its existing authorization.

Training and competence

There are no specific training and skill requirements for executing a transaction, but businesses should be aware of their general duty to ensure that those engaged in a particular business are competent to do it.

The FSA will carry out counseling training and proficiency checks. Among other things, this will require brokers to have staff who have passed the relevant derivatives exams or the securities and derivatives exam.


London’s financial district also seemed to be on top of the world. Gone is the postwar backwater that wasted its life financing the remnants of the imperial commodity trade. Half a century of financial innovation, trade liberalization, and deregulation had drawn foreign banks to the Square Mile and then opened it up to international capital. As the birthplace of the Eurobond market, which allowed companies to borrow US dollars outside the United States, London had long been an international hub for debt and currency trading. Now it was also becoming the place to raise equity capital. One fifth of all companies in the world that went public through an initial public offering (IPO) in 2005 have chosen to do so on the London Stock Exchange (lse). In a few years, analysts who feared the United States was suffering from a shortage of records would cite Britain as an example of how to get it right.

What are aligners for teeth?

Everyone wants a beautiful smile, but many of us need help. More and more people are finding success using transparent orthodontic devices called aligners (see for a detailed explanation).

Braces use braces that are connected with wire to make the teeth move. Aligners are a series of custom-fit snug mouthpieces that glide over your teeth. Invisalign is the largest manufacturer of clear aligners, but it is not the only brand. Others include Clear Correct, Inman Aligner, and Smart Moves.

Clear (or “invisible”) aligners are not for everyone. Your orthodontist or dentist will help you decide which is best for you. Ask them if they have experience treating people with an aligner. Get recommendations or pictures of your patients before and after. Learn more about FDA-approved dental aligners.

What is aligner technology?

Aligner technology is an alternative to orthodontic appliances. It uses thin, clear plastic shells to shift the teeth slightly with constant wear.

Instead of braces attached to the teeth, the aligners are removable and changed at intervals of 7-14 days. They look like trays for teeth whitening or transparent retainers.

A series of aligners are made from virtual models of your teeth with gradual or gradual movements towards straight teeth.

The number of aligners per lot varies, but is usually 10-50. It may take one to three or more sets of aligners to get a good result. The range depends on the difficulty of your bite, how consistently the mouthguards are worn, and how much resistance your jaw has to move.

Because invisible mouthguards are designed specifically for a snug fit, they are best suited for adults and teens. Straightening baby teeth is more difficult. The young and their mouths are still growing and developing; The doctor should think about this when prescribing treatment.

Clear orthodontic aligners are usually used for patients with mild to moderate crowding of teeth or with minor interdental problems. Patients with severe overbite or bite spacing problems or severe bite, malocclusion or cross bite may require more complex treatment.

Dog grooming

You can find the best Pet Groomers at Start your search and get free quotes now! Looking for a Pet Groomer for the first time and not sure where to start? Tell us about your project and we will send you a list of Pet Groomers for review. There’s no pressure to hire, so you can compare profiles, read past reviews and ask for more information before making your decision.

Reasons for grooming

Grooming is an essential part of a dog’s well-being and health, which can improve their quality of life. The amount of grooming a dog needs depends on its breed, age, and health. Regular grooming helps to ensure that the dog is healthy and comfortable. While many dogs moult, others, like the Poodle, do not moult as profusely and require grooming every 4-8 weeks.

The main reasons for daily grooming include:

Dog grooming near me

Dog hair removal

Coats of many breeds require a cut, cut, or other care. Styles vary by breed and discipline. Although some waxing has its origin for practical purposes, much of it is based on the owner’s taste, whether the dog will be shown or not, and what work the dog does.

Rubber grooming gloves and dog brushes are intended for removing hair from short-haired dogs and are among the most popular grooming tools among pet owners. They are easy to use by massaging the coat with firm strokes, and have the advantage of being suitable for both wet and dry coats.

Some dog breeds, like the Lhasa Apso, do not shed hair, but have hair that is constantly growing. As such, the fur around the paws and belly can become very long and matted, and the hair around the eyes can affect the dog’s vision. In such circumstances, the haircut can be done to keep the eyes clear and keep the coat free of tangles.

Creative dog grooming

Additional options offered by some groomers include services such as coloring dog fur and painting dog nails.
While traditional grooming manages to adhere to breed standards set by official breed associations, creative grooming goes in the opposite direction, creating a unique, sometimes exquisite look.

The lighter version of creative grooming is known as pet tuning and is more owner-focused, adjusting the visual appearance of pets to their owners’ fun or lifestyle, while creative grooming is more of an art form, therefore more artist (groomer) oriented.

Dog grooming tips

Have you ever seen your dog rolling on the floor, licking its fur, or chewing on its fur? These are their methods of staying clean. However, sometimes she needs a little help from you to look and smell good. But don’t worry, we’re here to help. Read on for ways to keep your dog’s coat, skin, nails, teeth, ears, and paws healthy and clean.

Bathing your dog

The experts recommend bathing your dog at least every three months, but some need to be bathed more frequently if he spends a lot of time outdoors or has skin problems. Here are a few steps to get you started.

Bathing your puppy

Some puppies think bath time is the perfect time to act silly! Young puppies in particular wiggle and hop everywhere and have a tendency to nibble while bathing. If that sounds like your pet, put a floating toy in the tub with them so they can focus on it instead of berating you.

Choosing a shampoo

It is best to use a pet shampoo. Human shampoos are not toxic to pets, but some may contain fragrances or other substances that can irritate your pet’s skin. Choose a product that is specifically designed for your species as some ingredients can be harmful if applied to different types of pets. It is always a good idea to speak to your pet’s vet to make sure you are choosing a shampoo that suits your pet’s needs.

Protect your dog’s eyes and ears during the bath

Since shampoos and soaps can be highly irritating, ask your veterinarian for a sterile eye lubricant to use while bathing – this will help protect your pet’s eyes from shampoo. You can also use a sprayer or shower head with a long hose to control the flow of water while you rinse. Avoid completely shampooing your pet’s head by simply using a wet washcloth to gently remove dirt or debris from their face.

Also, protect your pet’s ears by placing a large cotton ball in each ear until the bath is over.

Brushing your dog

Regular grooming with a brush or comb will help keep your pet’s hair in good condition by removing dirt, distributing natural oils into the coat, preventing tangles, and keeping the skin clean and irritation-free. Grooming is also a great time to check for fleas and flea debris – those little black spots that indicate your pet is hosting a family of fleas.

The way you brush your pet – and how often – depends largely on their coat type.

Smooth, short coats

If your dog has a sleek, short coat (like that of a Chihuahua, Boxer, or Basset Hound), you only need to brush it once a week. Use the rubber brush to loosen dead skin and dirt, and follow the bristle brush to remove dead hair. Polish your low-maintenance pooch with a chamois leather and he’s ready to shine!

Short, thick fur

If your dog has a short, thick coat that is prone to matting, like that of a retriever, it’s okay to brush once a week. Use the straighter brush to remove tangles and collect dead hair with a bristle brush. Don’t forget to comb her tail!

Long, silky coats

If your dog has long, luxurious fur, like that of a Yorkshire terrier, it needs daily attention. Every day you need to remove tangles with a smooth brush.


Although old or damaged hair loss is a normal process for dogs, the amount and frequency of hair loss often depends on their health, breed type and season. Many dogs develop a thick coat in the winter which then falls off in the spring. Dogs that are kept indoors all the time, however, are prone to small fluctuations in coat thickness and tend to shed fairly evenly throughout the year.

Skin problems

Your dog’s skin is an indication of his overall health, so keeping him in tip top shape is important. When a skin problem occurs, your dog may react by scratching, chewing and / or licking excessively. A wide range of causes, including external parasites, infections, allergies, metabolic problems, and stress, or a combination of these, can be the cause.

Dental care

Regularly brushing your dog’s teeth, along with a healthy diet and lots of chew toys, can go a long way in keeping his mouth healthy. Bacteria and plaque-forming foods can cause a buildup on a dog’s teeth. This can harden into tartar, potentially causing gingivitis, gum recession, and tooth loss. Many dogs show signs of gum disease before the age of four because they don’t get adequate oral hygiene.

Eye care

Having your puppy undergo regular eye exams at home will help you be on the lookout for any tearing, clouding, or inflammation that could indicate a health problem. First, face your dog in a well-lit area and make eye contact. They should be clear and shiny, and the area around the eyeball should be white. The pupils should be the same size and there should be no lacerations, secretions or scabs in the corners of the eyes. With your thumb, gently pull down your dog’s lower eyelid and look at the lining. It should be pink, not red or white.

Ear care

Your dog’s regular grooming routine should include regular ear checks. This is especially important for dogs who produce excess earwax or have a lot of inner ear hair. Don’t clean your dog’s ears so frequently or thoroughly that it causes irritation, and be careful never to insert anything into your dog’s ear canal. Probing inside can cause trauma or infection!


As a general rule, a dog’s nails should be clipped when they almost touch the ground when they walk. If your pet’s nails are banging or getting caught on the ground, it’s time to trim them. For dogs who live peacefully, this can mean weekly pedicures, while urban doggies wandering the bumpy city sidewalks may spend more time between cuts.

Paw care

The pads on the bottom of your pup’s feet provide additional cushioning to protect bones and joints from bumps, provide insulation from extreme weather conditions, help walk on rough terrain, and protect deep tissue. It is important to check your pet’s feet regularly to make sure there are no sores, infections, or foreign bodies that may be lodged there.

Dog grooming courses

The College of Animal Welfare operates four commercial grooming salons; TCA Grooming School in Huntingdon (Cambridgeshire), TCA Grooming School in Wigan, TCA Grooming School in North London and Veterinary & Pet Campus in Leeds (West Yorkshire).

We pride ourselves on providing professional and friendly service at prices affordable to those in the local community. Dogs are groomed by City & Guilds Dog Grooming students under the supervision of experienced and qualified groomers. Follow the links below for details on each grooming salon, including fees and booking information.

Choose a groomer with PuppyWorld

When you entrust your four-legged friend to a dog and cat groomer, you want to be sure that they can be trusted to take care of your pet. Reading the reviews available will help calm you down. By choosing an experienced groomer, your pet will come back clean and fresh, with a shiny, choppy tail.

Some groomers can work with a wide variety of animals. If you have a cat, rabbit, or even a chameleon that needs a nail cut, let us know when you request. There is probably someone who can help you.

Extended services for pets

Will your dog be the next Crufts champion? Or do you have a horse getting ready for a show jumping competition? Some groomers specialize in preparing animals for the show, a service that goes beyond grooming for maintenance. If you have a terrier that needs its fur in hand, rather than trimmed, be sure to include it in your initial request. This will help us find the right groomer for you in London.

What to expect

Some pet grooming services take place in the comfort of the groomer’s home. But mobile units are becoming more and more popular, especially in London. You don’t even have to leave the house for your pampered pet to be at its best. Let us know how they behave around other animals and if they enjoy the grooming process. This will allow the chosen groomer to bypass these needs.

Game Designer: Job Profile

Game designers are the center of creativity at the heart of creating the new game

As a game designer in a game development outsourcing company, you can create ideas, prototype, create interactive narratives and improve game mechanics. Design systems that are easy to maintain, expand, and comfortable to use, making the user experience fun.

Games come in a variety of formats and platforms, including mobile, virtual and augmented reality, consoles, and PCs, and you must use a variety of technical and creative skills to visualize, test and develop your ideas.

Game designers work as part of a multidisciplinary team that includes game developers, programmers, game artists, animators, and quality assurance testers.

While a game designer is usually a clearly defined job, in smaller companies you may be involved in art or programming elements. The sub-areas of game design include level designer, content designer and interface designer.


You can work as a game designer on a self-designed or pre-approved idea, such as a game based on a movie. Whatever your role, you will need:


Salaries for entry positions as a junior / trainee typically range from £ 17,000 to £ 18,000. The salary for quality assurance (QA) tester roles, another common way to design games, is between £ 18,000 and £ 22,000.
Level planners can expect revenues of around £ 20-35,000.

The average salary for a game designer is £ 30,000, although you can earn up to £ 45,000. As a leading game designer, you can earn up to £ 65,000.

Salaries vary based on a number of factors, such as your skills and experience, the size of the company you work for, the type of game you work for, and the position.

The benefits, especially for larger companies, can be very generous. These can include transfer packages, access to arcades, fitness / gym membership, private healthcare, and in-store discounts.

Revenue data is for informational purposes only.

Working hours

He usually works 30 to 40 hours per week. Flexible working hours are available. You may need to work on weekends and evenings as deadlines approach.

Most game designers work full-time, a small portion are self-employed or part-time.


While a degree in game design is not required, most game designers have degrees. Game-specific ranks are particularly useful

The Association of Indie Game Developers (TIGA) accredits a number of undergraduate and graduate level gaming courses.

Subjects with a bachelor’s degree in science, technology, and engineering are also helpful. It is also possible to enter the industry with a degree in social sciences or arts and humanities. In particular, employers expect relevant experience and knowledge of toys.

Entry into game design is usually done through a junior / trainee game design position or after being promoted from a quality assurance (QA) testing role. Quality assurance positions include application and game testing to find and report problems on different hardware platforms. They provide good experience in running the company and making the game.

It is important to create an online portfolio of your projects and all the work you do to showcase your game design skills and experience.

Also, you need to be up to date with current gaming trends across all platforms. Read more: 3d game character assets

TOP 5 Most Common Investment Myths Debunked

Common Investing Misconceptions 

Not a secret that there are a lot of investor myths. It happens due to the reluctance of people to understand the topic, so they believe it’s true. But are they right? Let’s figure it out. We decided to tell you about the most common misconceptions about investing and prove that these are just myths.

A bro doesn’t need a pro

Almost every new investor thinks that they’ll cope with the investment himself and he doesn’t need any advice, in case of doubt he’s able to use the Internet. In fact, you’ll need the help of a portfolio manager or financial advisor, as any long-term investment requires well-considered decisions, and if you aren’t a pro, then you may need a bro. 

‘The right’ investing age

Do you know what the right investing age is? No? We neither.

Some people say, ‘I’m too old for putting money’ or ‘I’m too young for putting money’. We hope you aren’t one of them, as it isn’t true. Age may only affect your investment goals, strategy or risk profile. If you’re young, you have the opportunity to profit from compound interest, and your main resource is time (we’ll talk about it later). With it, you have more chances to recover from potential losses and more opportunities to get investment education in order to avoid them (losses obviously). If you consider yourself as the old one, then you’re able to invest, for example, in order to get a higher profit than the amount that the savings account offers you. Remember that at any age you shouldn’t put all your money to the last penny, as this may cause financial difficulties.

No time to invest 

It’s believed that investing is a big deal. Well, it’s true, but it doesn’t mean that it’ll take a lot of time. It’s helpful to take the time to do a little market research before your first investment. And then your time will depend only on the goal and strategy. 

Often we justify our passivity to something by the fact that we have little time. But in reality, you simply don’t have the desire or motivation to do it. You’re on this site and reading this article – congratulations, everything is ok with your motivation. As you know, doing simple things is much easier than hard ones. So investing is easy.

You can try to use the Orca app with its convenient features such as:

Stocks only

Stocks are the most popular thing to put money in, but there are other types of investment products. For example, exchange traded funds, or ETFs. They’re suitable for different investors, including beginners. ETFs are similar to mutual funds, but listed on an exchange and have the trading behaviour of stocks. And so diversification enters the chat to help manage risk. In addition, you can put your money in bonds, mutual funds, as well as physical objects such as real estate, cars or even collectible card games. It’s not only about stocks.

It is a kind of gambling story 

There is no guarantee in investing, so some people think of it as gambling, but it isn’t. Of course, success in investing depends on many factors and risks, so don’t forget about them at the moment when you make a calculated decision to become an investor. Nobody knows where this will lead you. Analytics, facts, economics and market behaviour – this is the basis of investments, in contrast to gambling.

We have disproved 5 myths about investment, but, unfortunately, there are many more. Don’t let them get in the way of your financial goals. Learn to separate facts from fiction to be successful. You need to understand one thing – investing is not scary or difficult. There is always someone who can help you and give efficient advice. To prevent risk, read daily news straight from the stock markets (for example, in the Orca app). Anyone can be an investor regardless of age or lack of special knowledge.

As with all investing, you may get back less than you put in. Your capital is at risk. Be sure to conduct research on stocks that you want to invest in. If you are unsure of this you should seek advice from a professional advisor. Orca does not provide investment advice.

Orca is an appointed representative of RiskSave Technologies Ltd, which is authorised and regulated by the Financial Conduct Authority (FRN 775330).

What is blockchain?

Blockchain is a special kind of database in which data can only be entered, not deleted or changed. Transactions within so-called blocks (consisting of transaction information and other metadata) are periodically added to the blockchain.

Such a structure is called a chain, because the metadata of each block includes some of the information from the previous one and links the blocks together. In particular, it includes the hash of the previous block, which acts as a unique digital fingerprint.

The chances that two pieces of data will give you the same hash function result is incredibly small. That is, if someone tries to change the old block, its hash will also change, which means that the hash of the next block will also be different, and so on. Therefore, it is very easy to understand whether a block has been changed, because all the blocks following it will also be changed.


It is important to note the need to fully download the blockchain to the participant’s drive. Remember when we said that anyone can validate (verify) transactions and signatures using public key cryptography? When a node receives a block, it performs a series of checks; if something is invalid, the block is rejected.

When a node receives a valid block, it copies it and distributes this block to other nodes. They, in turn, do the same until the block spreads across the entire network. The same process is performed for unconfirmed transactions, that is, those that have been announced but have not yet been added to the blockchain. In particular, this is how BTC (bitcoin) works:

What furniture to buy if you have pets?

Pet owners often think about how to protect upholstered furniture from them. You can think of a large number of ways that over a period of time may seem effective.

This is especially important for interior designs that include leather furniture, restored wooden windows (like those and other costly things.

You can clean the furniture with a special brush or put a plank in the corner of the room. However, these methods do not always work, because sooner or later curiosity will seize the animals, and it will decide to “conquer” the sofa and the rest of the upholstered furniture.

Which furniture to choose?

When choosing soft furniture sets, pet owners need to pay attention to the material of the upholstery.

Faux suede has a high level of strength, and therefore it is difficult to damage it when exposed to sharp objects. Also, the upholstery made of satin and jacquard will not be of interest to the pet. These fabrics are distinguished by a dense weave of fibers, and therefore the animal cannot pry them with its claws, using a sofa or chair as a sharpener.

The main distinguishing feature of the Teflon coating is its extreme smoothness. It is impossible to hook it with sharp objects and spoil the appearance of the product. At the same time, the Teflon upholstery is soft, and therefore it will be comfortable to sit on such a sofa after a hard day’s work and relax.

Scotchguard material, which is one of the types of jacquard, deserves special attention. Its surface is quite soft and warm, but it successfully repels substances such as moisture, dust and even grease. For these reasons, the owners of upholstered furniture, the upholstery of which is made of scotchguard, do not need to seek professional help in order to clean the product from dirt. This saves time and budget.

Leather substitute furniture and animals

Recently, soft headsets upholstered with artificial leather have become especially popular. They look solid and can emphasize the status of their owner in society, but they cannot be called practical.

When choosing leatherette furniture, you should give preference to an innovative material – arpatek, which has similar characteristics to natural leather and can withstand strong mechanical stress and moisture. It is easy to care for and retains its characteristics even after a long service life.

The richest animals in the world

We live boringly… whereas in the USA a dog can become a mayor, and in Norway – a general. It looks all funny and banned, but I never shared such jokes, mockery of society and animals. Probably, people do not cope with their duties, since animals more and more often “try on” human professions and do quite well with work that is unusual for animals. This post compiled a selection of unique animals in “human positions”.

Penguin General

On 22 August, a king penguin from Edinburgh Zoo, Scotland, became Brigadier General of the Royal Guard of Norway. The title was awarded to the bird at a ceremony in Edinburgh. The penguin’s name is Nils Olaf. The ceremony was attended by over 50 Norwegian Guardsmen who arrived for the Royal Edinburgh Military Band Parade. The guardsmen saluted Niels Olaf, and he strictly examined the formation. The bird even has its own epaulette. Prior to his promotion, Nils Olaf was an honorary colonel of the guard and its mascot. In addition, in 2008 he was knighted. By the way, this is not the first penguin in the service. The first Niels Ulaf died in 1987 after becoming a sergeant in the guard. Soon a second Nils Olaf was elected, and then he was replaced by a third. Moreover, each subsequent penguin began service in the same rank that his predecessor had at the time of death. This is what allowed the current Niels Olaf to rise to the rank of brigadier general and become the highest-ranking bird in the world.

Dog mayor

Residents of Cormoranta (Minnesota), with a population of about 1000 residents, elected a dog named Duke for the third time as mayor of the city. The second term of the dog, the Pyrenean Mountain breed, was coming to an end. Therefore, the townspeople re-elected him again. According to the owner of the dog, the Duke won the elections for the first time in 2014. It happened quite by accident. Then 12 people voted for him.

Killer whale actor

Perhaps it is animal actors that are the most familiar of the unusual professions in animals. How many of them appear in commercials and feature films, some are invited many times and they become truly top artists. For example, during his 26 years of life, a male killer whale named Keiko starred in several major films, the most famous of which were three films from the Free Willy series. At the end of a rather long acting career, the animal was returned to the native waters of Iceland, after which Keiko settled near the coast of Norway and lived there under the supervision of local scientists. Alas, the killer whale was never able to adapt to the wild and died a year later.

Octopus diviner

During the European Football Championship in 2008, the amazing octopus Paul began to predict the results of the matches of the German national team. The accuracy of his predictions at that time was 80%. The mollusk unmistakably determined the outcome of four of the five meetings of the German national team. But at the World Cup, held in South Africa in 2010, Paul has already accurately predicted the outcome of all matches of the German team. There are other known cases when our smaller brothers were engaged in predictive, giving forecasts of certain sporting events, but this was one of the most striking.

Painted ambassador

In 2008, the Japanese government introduced a new government post – a Tourism Goodwill Ambassador. And they decided to appoint a famous painted cat named Halloween Kitty. Hello Kitty’s main activities are concentrated in China and Hong Kong. On her behalf, a Chinese-language travel blog is being run on the Internet. This character differs from the general list of this rating, but the case is very interesting, so I decided to add for a change.

Monkey artist

The most famous animal artist is the Congo chimpanzee. The cost of paintings by this master varies from 900 to 8500 thousand dollars. The creativity of the Congo was discovered by the British zoologist Desmond Morris and immediately offered the chimpanzee a pencil and a piece of paper. Soon, the monkey learned to draw circles, and after a couple of years he was already masterfully wielding a brush. Among the admirers of the Congo were such masters as Pablo Picasso and Joan Miró.

Dog astronaut

Not only in the twenty-first century, people are trying to attach animals to different professions. Of course, one cannot but recall such a heroine of space exploration as the dog Laika. Having passed the way from a stray dog ​​to an astronaut, Laika became one of the first living beings to orbit the Earth. Its return was not provided for by the design of the spacecraft, so the dog died from overheating during the flight 5-7 hours after the launch. True, it was assumed that she would live in orbit for at least a week. Neither her name, nor her feat, nor her sacrifice will ever be forgotten by science.

Guard crows

I learned about these ravens from the Posner program, who, due to the first channel, traveled around Europe and told, showed and shared. The population of six ravens has been living within the walls of the Tower of London for quite a long time and has great symbolic significance for the whole of England. Back in the days of King Charles II (17th century), it was believed that the Tower itself and the entire British monarchy would collapse without ravens. Since then, the birds have held the honorary title of guardians of the famous fortress and even receive a salary of 100 pounds a month. In addition, each individual has its own name. So, at the moment, Branwen, Baldrick, Gwillum, Munin, Thor and Hugin are valiantly serving within the walls of the Tower. All names are taken from Scandinavian mythology.

As you can see, those pets and wild animals are doing pretty well. I doubt they read any business ebooks to get there… however, they are probably much happier then their human colleagues are.

Vaping and dogs: make sure your pets are safe

If you have animals in your home, you are undoubtedly worried about how your vaping affects them. Pets are curious creatures. As soon as you look away, they are already going to study your reserves of fluids. Sometimes in the media there are reports that accidentally drunk liquid for electronic cigarettes led to the death of a puppy or kitten. And now anxiety arises in my head, but how does vaping affect our smaller brothers?

Liquids are the main danger

In the issue of the relationship between pets and vaping, liquid for electronic cigarettes plays a key role, because it contains poisonous nicotine, the strength of which is determined primarily by the mass of the person on whom it turns out. Therefore, the smaller the animal, the lower the dose is needed to poison it.

Take dogs for example. The toxic dose for them is 9.2 mg / kg, so 156 mg of nicotine (52 ml of liquid with a concentration of 3 mg / ml) is dangerous for an average collie weighing 17 kg. For small dogs weighing about 3 kg, 27.6 mg will be quite dangerous, which translated into the same liquid will be 9.2 ml. From these simple calculations, it is clear that a standard bottle can lead to serious consequences for our smaller brothers if the animal consumes this liquid.

In most cases, only nicotine should be feared, because food flavorings are safe to swallow, and propylene glycol and glycerin are included in some feeds. So if you are only vaping nicotine-free liquid, then there is no reason for much concern.

Most important tip: Store liquids out of the reach of your pets. If you regularly refuel your tank, do not be lazy to tighten the bottle cap well. Cats are usually not very interested in liquid, but dogs are attracted to new smells. In addition, dogs are larger and harder to manage. In general, keeping liquids out of sight, such as in a box, will increase their shelf life.

Passive smoking

So, the most important threat is easily eliminated. A little prudence is enough and everything will be fine. But what about the other risks? For example, steam. Can he harm pets? How will vaping, even if it is passive, affect your cat or dog? Everything is somewhat more complicated here.

It is almost impossible to avoid reports that e-cigarettes contain harmful chemicals, but it is not the substance itself that is important, but its quantity, which is a fundamental principle of toxicology. When people get scared and frighten others with substances in a pair, they pronounce scary names, but they hardly talk about their quantity, about how much of this substance somehow significantly affects health. They don’t even compare the vapor of e-cigarettes to the smoke of conventional cigarettes.

Unsurprisingly, most studies do not identify any contamination in the room where the e-cigarette was used. We have already written about how Californian scientists accidentally confirmed the safety of passive vaping.

So secondhand e-cigarette smoking is unlikely to cause more harm to your pets than regular air, but be still prudent and do not blow puffs of steam into your pets’ noses.

Cats and propylene glycol

Although PG is a fairly popular ingredient in dog food, cats have recently shown remarkable sensitivity to this substance. Moreover, it causes them to have Heinz anemia. This is a condition in which the hemoglobin in red blood cells changes its structure, which negatively affects the ability of blood cells to carry oxygen.

In a study by doctors from the University of Minnesota, cats were fed food with different propylene glycol contents of 1.6 g and 8 g per kg of animal body. In both cases, the development of Heinz’s bodies was observed. In the first case, they were 28%, and in the second, 92%. In addition, there have been other studies that have found that current cat food does not contain propylene glycol.

In general, there is no need to worry too much: the dose of risk is considered to be 1.6 g per kg of body weight of the animal. That is, if your cat weighs 5 kg, then to approach this figure you will need to evaporate more than 15 ml of liquid 50/50 on it at a time.

However, for pure prudence, do not let steam go into your cat’s face or near food and water.

Safety checklist

If you use e-cigarettes, it is worth worrying about their safety for your pets, dogs, cats, etc, present at your vaping space.

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